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CLIMATE CHANGE AND CONSEQUENCES

    1. Dieter Lüthi, Martine Le Floch, Bernhard Bereiter, Thomas Blunier, Jean-Marc Barnola, Urs Siegenthaler, Dominique Raynaud, Jean Jouzel, Hubertus Fischer, Kenji Kawamura, et al., “High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000–800,000 years before present,” Nature, Vol. 453, No. 7193, pp. 379- 382, 15 May 2008.
    2. Tans, Pieter. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide – Mauna Loa. July 2009. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends (accessed July 13, 2009).
    3. Energy Information Agency. Greenhouse Gases, Climate Change, and Energy. May 2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/greenhouse/Chapter1.htm (accessed June 30, 2009).
    4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Are the Increases in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Other Greenhouse Gases During the Industrial Revolution Caused by Human Activities? March 27, 2008. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/FAQ/wg1_faq-7.1.html (accessed June 10, 2009).
    5. Doran, Peter T.; Maggie Kendall Zimmerman (January 20, 2009). “Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change”. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union, vol. 90, no. 3: 22–23.
    6. Northwest Passage – Map of Arctic Sea Ice. http://geology.com/articles/northwest-passage.shtml (accessed June 23, 2009).
    7. Bamber J.L., Riva R.E.M., Vermeersen B.L.A., LeBroq A.M. (2009). “Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet”. Science 324: 901.
    8. Ramanujan, Krishna. “Dwindling Arctic Ice.” NASA Earth Observatory. October 24, 2003. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/ArcticIce/ (accessed July 21, 2009).
    9. Biello, David. “Mass Extinctions Tied to Past Climate Changes.” Scientific American. October 24, 2007. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=mass-extinctions-tied-to-past-climate-changes (accessed July 21, 2009).
    10. Brian Fagan, Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and the Fate of Civilizations. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
    11. Diamond, Jared. Collapse. London: Viking Penguin, 2005, 311-328.
    12. IPCC. “IPCC Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change.”

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Print_FrontMatter.pdf (accessed June 15, 2009).

  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. “International Analyses.” Climate Change-Climate Economics. 2001. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/economics/international.html (accessed July 7, 2009).
  • Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R.J. Andres. 2008. Global, Regional, and National Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
  • Ibid.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases.” Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC, 2006.
  • Ibid.
  • IPCC. “IPCC Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis of Climate Change.” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Print_FrontMatter.pdf (accessed June 15, 2009).
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. “Global Surface Temperature Anomalies.” National Climatic Data Center. 2007. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/research/anomalies/index.php#anomalies (accessed June 15, 2009).
  • Singh, Seema. “Global warming could hurt crop yields: study.” Livemint.com and The Wall Street Journal. January 8, 2009. http://www.livemint.com/2009/01/08200758/Global-warming-could-hurt-crop.html (accessed July 1, 2009).
  • Parry, M.L., O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • National Snow and Ice Data Center. “Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis.” 2009. http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/ (accessed July 9, 2009).
  • NOAA. “Sea Level Data.” National Oceangraphic Data Center. 2006. http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/General/sealevel.html (accessed June 17, 2009).
  • The CNA Corporation. “National Security and the Threat of Climate Change.” Alexandria, 2007. http://securityandclimate.cna.org/report/National%20Security%20and%20the%20Threat%20of%20Climate%20Change.pdf, 24-27.
  • Center for Emerging Threats and Opportunities. 2008 Edition of Flashpoints. Quantico: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 2008, 17-19.
  • Freimuth, Ladeene, Gidon Bromberg, Munqeth Mehyar, and Nader Al Khateeb. Climate Change: A New Threat to Middle East Security. Prepared for the United Nations Climate Change Conference, Bali: EcoPeace / Friends of the Earth Middle East in special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations, 2007, 21.
  • Parry, M.L., O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 443-445.
  • Parry, M.L., O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden, and C.E. Hanson. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 443.
  • Diamond, Jared. Collapse. London: Viking Penguin, 2005, 311-328.
  • Viniegra, María Eugenia Ibarrarán, and Salimah Mónica Cossens González. “Climate Change Research and Policy in Mexico: Implications for North American Security.” Politics and Policy 35, no. 4 (December 2007): 684-701.

 

 

ENERGY SECURITY

  1. Ikenberry, John G. “The Irony of State Strength: Comparative Responses to the Oil Shocks in the 1970s.” International Organization 40, no. 1 (Winter 1986): 107-109.
  2. Otterman, Sharon. “Pirates Briefly Rattle Oil Market.” The New York Times, November 17, 2008.
  3. “Climate Change, Extreme Events, and Coastal Cities.” Conference Report, Rice University & University College of London, Houston, 2005.
  4. Christoff, Joseph A., interview by United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Rebuilding Iraq: Stabilization, Reconstruction, and Financing Challenges (February 8, 2006).
  5. Energy Information Administration. Energy Price Impacts on the U.S. economy since the early 1970s? April 10, 2001. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/economy/energy_price.html (accessed July 10, 2009).
  6. –. Official Energy Statistics from the US Government. http://www.eia.doe.gov/ (accessed June 15, 2009).
  7. Ibid. 4 –. Renewable & Alternative Fuels. http://www.eia.doe.gov/fuelrenewable.html (accessed June 15, 2009).
  8. Central Intelligence Agency. “Country Comparison: Oil-Proved Reserves.” The World Factbook. January 1, 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2178rank.html (accessed July 20, 2009).
  9. (Energy Information Administration n.d.)
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ross, Michael Lewin. “Does Oil Hinder Demoncracy.” World Politics 53, no. 3 (April 2001): 325-361.; Barro, Robert J. “Determinants of Democracy.” Journal of Political Economy 107, no. 6/2 (December 1999): Supplement 158-183.; Tsui, Kevin K. More Oil, Less Democracy? Theory and Evidence from Crude Oil Discoveries. Job Market Paper, Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005.
  12. The Economist. “Political Instability Index.” March 25, 2009. http://www.economist.com/markets/rankings/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13349331.
  13. Colgan, Jeff. “Oil and Revolutionary Regimes: A Toxic Mix.” Paper prepared for International Political Economy Society Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, 2008.
  14. “Lethal Sting.” Anti-Ship Missiles. http://www.global-defence.com/2003/anti_ship.htm (accessed July 24, 2009).
  15. Mazzetti, Mark, and Thom Shanker. “Hezbollah’s unexpected firepower.” The New York Times. July 19, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/19/world/africa/19iht-missile.2238629.html (accessed July 23, 2009).
  16. Energy Information Administration. “World Oil Transit Chokepoints.” Country Analysis Briefs. January 2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/cabs/World_Oil_Transit_Chokepoints/Full.html (accessed May 28, 2009).
  17. ICC Commercial Crime Services. “IMB Live Piracy Map.” 2009. http://www.icc-ccs.org/index.php?option=com_fabrik&view=visualization&controller=visualization.googlemap&Itemid=219 (accessed July 27, 2009).
  18. Glendinning, Lee, and James Sturcke. “Pirates take over oil tanker with British crew on board.” Guardian. November 17, 2008. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/17/oil-tanker-pirates (accessed July 20, 2009).
  19. “International Tanker.” OSG. http://www.osg.com/index.cfm?pageid=46 (accessed July 15, 2009).
  20. IAGS. Iraqi Pipeline Watch. March 27, 2008. http://www.iags.org/iraqpipelinewatch.htm (accessed July 23, 2009).
  21. Copulos, Milton R. Testimony for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee Washington DC, (March 30, 2006). http://foreign.senate.gov/testimony/2006/CopulosTestimony060330.pdf.
  22. Delucchi, Mark A., and James J. Murphy. “U.S. military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles.” Energy Policy 36 (April 2008): 2253-2264.

 

POLICY ALTERNATIVES

  1. Research and Innovative Technology Administration. Table 1-11: Number of U.S. Aircraft, Vehicles, Vessels, and Other Conveyances. http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_01_11.html.
  2. “Hart/McInturff /The Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll.” June 9-12, 2006. http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/12286.
  3. “Marist College Poll.” April 1-3, 2009. http://www.pollingreport.com/enviro.htm.
  4. “American Security Project poll.” August 5, 2009.
  5. “World Public Opinion Assessing Governments on Climate Change.” World Public Opinion. July 29, 2009. http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/jul09/WPO_ClimateChange_Jul09_quaire.pdf.
  6. “ABC News/Washington Post Poll.” June 18-21, 2009. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/nation/polls/postpoll_environment_042007.html.
  7. “56% Don’t Want to Pay More to Fight Global Warming.” Rasmussen Reports. July 1, 2009. www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/56_don_t_want_to_pay_more_to_fight_global_warming (accessed July 20, 2009).
  8. (ABC News/Washington Post Poll 2009).
  9. MIT Energy Initiative. The Future of Coal. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007. http://web.mit.edu/coal/ (accessed July 28, 2009).
  10. Eurostar. Timetable Core Destinations. http://www.eurostar.com/pdf/timetables/timetables_english2.pdf (accessed July 28, 2009).
  11. Amtrak. Northeast Corridor Boston and Virginia Beach. http://www.amtrak.com/timetable/july09/W04.pdf (accessed July 28, 2009).
  12. Research and Innovative Technology Administration. Table 1-11: Number of U.S. Aircraft, Vehicles, Vessels, and Other Conveyances. http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_01_11.html.
  13. Energy Information Administration. Table 1.5: Energy Consumption, Expenditures, and Emissions Indicators, 1949-2008. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/txt/ptb0105.html (accessed July 27, 2009).
  14. Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 2009 with Projections to 2030. March 2009. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/electricity.html (accessed July 10, 2009).
  15. International Atomic Energy Agency. Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2030. Reference Data Series No. 1, Vienna: IAEA, 2007.
  16. MIT Energy Initiative. The Future of Nuclear Power 2009 Update to the 2003 Report. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009. http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower/ (accessed July 22, 2009)
  17. (MIT Energy Initiative 2009), World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Power in the World Today. March 2009. www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf01.html (accessed July 20, 2009).
  18. (MIT Energy Initiative 2009).
  19. Energy Information Administration. U.S. Nuclear Reactors. 2007. www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reactors/reactsum.html (accessed June 24, 2009).
  20. Tarnoff, Chris, and Larry Nowells. “Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy.” CRS Report for Congress, Washington DC, 2004. http://www.fas.org/man/crs/98-916.pdf.
  21. World Health Organization. “Quanitifying Selected Major Risks to Health.” In The World Health Report 2002, 49-97. 2002. http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_ch4.pdf.
  22. Global Humanitarian Forum. “Human Impact Report: Climate Change.” Geneva, 2009. http://ghfgeneva.org/Portals/0/pdfs/human_impact_report.pdf.
  23. Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji. “Trends in USAID Global Health Spending: FY2001- FY2009.” 35th Annual Global Health Conference. Washington, DC, 2008. http://www.globalhealth.org/conference_2008/presentations/ps6_t_salaam_blyther.pdf.
  24. Nikiforuk, Andrew. On the Table: Water, Energy, and North American Integration. Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto: The Program on Water Issues, 2007. http://www.powi.ca/pdfs/waterdiversion/waterdiversion_onthetable_new.pdf.
  25. Ewegen, Bob. “McCain suggests raiding Colorado’s water.” The Denver Post, August 16, 2008. http://www.denverpost.com/opinion/ci_10218277.
  26. O’Hanlon, Michael E. Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2003.

 

Pay Now, Pay Later

 

Florida

  1. Projected costs of inaction are in 2006 dollars. Elizabeth Stanton and Frank Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” Tufts University, November 2007. http://www.ase.tufts.edu/gdae/Pubs/rp/Florida_lr.pdf
  2. Projections show a population of 33 million in Florida at this time. Stanton and Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” November 2007, 18.
  3. Phase 1 Report: Florida’s Energy and Climate Change Action Plan Pursuant to Executive Order 07-128,”Governor’s Action Team on Energy and Climate Change, November 2007. http://www.dep.state.fl.us/climatechange/files/20071101_final_report.pdf
  4. NRDC assumes a 2.4 and a 4.9 degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature and uses IPCC research and recent data on the potential rate at which Greenland’s glaciers will melt for 2025 and 2050, respectively.
  5. The Cost of Climate Change, NRDC.
  6. Stanton and Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” November 2007.
  7. NOAA 2004.
  8. Population Trends Along the Coastal United States: 1980 – 2008,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce, September 2004. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/programs/mb/pdfs/coastal_pop_trends_complete.pdf appendix d
  9. Stanton and Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” November 2007.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Stanton and Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” November 2007.
  14. Ibid, 21.
  15. “Everglades National Park Service – Press Kit,” US Department of the Interior. http://www.nps.gov/ever/parknews/presskit.htm
  16. Stanton and Ackerman, “Florida and Climate Change: The Costs of Inaction,” November 2007, vii.
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